The Physics Nobel Prize for the year 2019 has been announced jointly to Canadian-American astronomer James Peebles and Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz.
Half of the nine million Swedish kronor ($ 914,000 dollars or 833,000 euros) received as a Nobel Prize will be shared by both astronomer James Peebles and the remaining amount, along with a gold medal awarded to all scientists.
James Peebles, 84, is a professor of science at Princeton University, based in the United States. Michel Mayer and Didier Queloz are professors at the University of Geneva, with Didier Queloz serving at the University of Cambridge, UK.
James Peebles explains from his theoretical discoveries how the Universe has evolved after the Big Bang. Their discovery will help us understand the origin of the universe as well as reveal the secrets of Dark Matter.
Mayer and Queloz have, in their research, shed light on the origin, structure and behavior of planets outside our solar system called exoplanet. The discovery of these two astronomers will be helpful in understanding the origin and position of the Earth because if we look from the cosmic perspective, the Earth is also similar to an exoplanet.
Nobel committee said that
“The theoretical discovery of these astronomers is in fact the basis for understanding the origin, evolution and behavior of the universe. The theory developed by James Peebles in the mid-1960s has changed our cosmic perceptions forever. ”
Light rays began their space journey when the universe was evolving several millennia after the Big Bang. Based on instruments and theoretical calculations, James Peebles demonstrated that there is a special relationship between the temperature of radiation emitted after the Big Bang and the amount of matter produced by it.
Michel Mayer and Didier Queloz first discovered an exoplanet (51 Pegasi B) in 1995. This Jupiter-shaped gaseous exoplanet was orbiting a sun-like star (51 Pegasi). This exoplanet is about 50 light years away from Earth. These astronomers found that this star represents a red shift. Usually the red deviation occurs when the light source moves away from the light inspector while the blue deviation is displayed when the light source approaches the light inspector, just like the Doppler Effect of sound rays. Generally, the glow of a star fades to the brightness of the planet around it, causing them to disappear from sight. These scientists observed that the gravity of the exoplanet 51 Pegasi B affects the rotation path of that star, as well as the light color of a moving body changes color.